17-Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet

The Memorandum on the Genuine Autonomy of the Tibetan People, presented to the Chinese leadership in 2008, should be considered in this context. To what extent has the memorandum departed from China`s three-principled approach? More importantly, it is worth considering whether or not the memorandum falls within the scope of the Chinese Constitution, if not to what extent it has deviated. These are the common bases on which Tibet and China should discuss and negotiate in order to reach a mutually acceptable agreement. The signing of the seventeen-point agreement was later challenged as invalid in the Tibetan community in exile, which accused Tibetan delegates of signing under duress and that the Chinese allegedly used false seals from the Tibetan government. The exiled community and its supporters continue to claim that Tibetan representatives have not been allowed to propose changes and that the Chinese government has not allowed Tibetan representatives to communicate with Lhasa. [10] The Chinese made new seals for tibetans, but they were only personal seals on which the name of each delegate was engraved. Otherwise, there were no false government seals. Some of the confusion stems from the fact that Ngabo had the seal of the governor of eastern Tibet in his possession, but did not use it. However, this seal was not the official seal of the Tibetan government, so non-use did not diminish the validity of the agreement. In his autobiography, the Dalai Lama notes that Tibetan delegates claimed they were forced to sign the agreement „under duress.“ Their sense of coercion stems from China`s general threat to resume the use of military force in central Tibet if no agreement is reached. However, under international law, this does not entail the nullity of an agreement. As long as there is no physical violence against the signatories, an agreement is valid.

However, the validity of the agreement rests on the full power of the signatories to conclude an agreement and, as we have seen, this was clearly not the case. In this sense, the Dalai Lama actually had reason to deny it. [17] „The Tibetan local government, as well as the ecclesiastical and secular people, unanimously support this agreement and, under the leadership of Chairman Mao and the Central People`s Government, will actively support the Tibetan People`s Liberation Army in consolidating national defense, expelling imperialist influences from Tibet, and securing the unification of the territory and the sovereignty of the homeland.“ [13] The Chinese Communist Party may try to force Tibetans to celebrate the events of May 23, 1951 as a victory and liberation, but for Tibetans, this remains a deception and distraction from their efforts to secure their freedom, which cannot be dictated by the CCP and must abide by its conditions. In the second half of April 1951, the delegates arrived in Beijing with the full powers of the local government of Tibet. The Central People`s Government has appointed representatives with full powers to hold amicable talks with delegates with full powers from the local government of Tibet. Following these discussions, the two sides agreed to conclude this agreement and ensure its entry into force. Much to the chagrin of Communist China, the 17-point agreement of 1951 remains an important document to prove that Tibet was an independent nation before the Chinese invasion. However, since Tibetans are not now seeking to secede from China, the document can play a crucial role in finding common ground based on the approach of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan administration in exile. The three fundamental approaches of Tibet and China could be the Possible Zone of Understanding (ZOPA), in which a solution to the Tibet issue could be found. A strong will and sincere efforts on the part of China`s leaders to look into the ZOPA sphere would be more beneficial for both sides than insisting on the immoral victory they achieved through the 17-point deal. 1 TG Arya, tibet.net/2019/03/tibet-has-never-been-a-part-of-china-anywhere-in-its-pre-1949-history/ The uprising and the flight of the Dalai Lama marked the failure of the Agreement in seventeen points.

Since his exile, the Dalai Lama has continued to reject the agreement, claiming that it was imposed on the Tibetan government and the Tibetan people by the threat of arms. Many believe that the 17-point deal with China marked the end of Tibetan independence. No, in fact, the 17-point agreement is an important document to prove that Tibet was an independent nation. The agreement is also proof that China has accepted the „one country, two systems“ formula for Tibet. The nature and outcome of the agreement also reveal the true imperialist color of Chinese communism. Although the agreement was signed under duress, His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government have done their best to meet China`s demand. When China became convinced that the country was completely under the control of its People`s Liberation Army (PLA), it began to violate the agreement. This is how China functions under the communist regime. Hong Kong and Taiwan should learn from this Tibetan experience and be wary of Chinese overtures5. To resolve the Sino-Tibetan issue, His Holiness the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan Administration-in-Exile have proposed solutions in the form of a 1987 five-point peace plan, a 1988 Strasbourg proposal and the 2008 Memorandum on True Autonomy. These three proposals can be seen as the three-core Tibetan approach to resolving the Tibet issue.

It shares many similarities with the 17-point agreement6, Prime Minister Deng Xiaoping`s statement7 and the Chinese Constitution8, China`s three-pronged approach. The terms of the agreement affirmed that Tibet was seeking Chinese protection against the imperialist powers. The first clause of the agreement stated: „The Tibetan people will unite and drive the aggressive imperialist forces out of Tibet; the Tibetan people will return to the homeland family – the People`s Republic of China. Although the 17-point agreement was signed under duress, it gave China the necessary pretext to travel to Tibet. When His Holiness the Dalai Lama refuted it in April 1959 in Tezpur, India,9 the international community learned the truth about the agreement and China lost the legitimacy to occupy Tibet. In October 1950, the Jinsha River defeated the Tibetan army on October 19. [8] [9] Instead of continuing the military campaign, China asked Tibet to send representatives to Beijing to negotiate a deal. The Dalai Lama believes that the draft agreement was drafted by China and that Tibetan representatives were not allowed to propose changes. China has not allowed Tibetan officials to communicate with the Tibetan government in Lhasa.

The Tibetan delegation was not allowed by Lhasa to sign, but eventually submitted to Chinese pressure to sign anyway, with seals made specifically for this purpose. [10] The head of the Tibetan delegation, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, said he had the power to sign an agreement. [4] In 1949, a fundamental victory was won nationwide in the Chinese People`s Liberation War; the common internal enemy of all ethnic groups – the reactionary Kuomintang government – has been overthrown; and the common foreign enemy of all ethnic groups – the aggressive imperialist forces – was expelled. On this basis, the establishment of the People`s Republic of China and the Central People`s Government was announced. In accordance with the joint programme adopted by the Chinese People`s Political Consultative Conference (PKKCV), the Central People`s Government declared that all ethnic groups within the borders of the People`s Republic of China are equal and will establish unity and mutual assistance and oppose imperialism and its own public enemies, thus transforming the People`s Republic of China into a great fraternal and cooperative family. Becomes. composed of all ethnic groups; that within the large family of all ethnic groups of the People`s Republic of China, national regional autonomy is exercised in areas where national minorities are concentrated, and that all national minorities have the freedom to develop and preserve their spoken and written language or that the People`s Government assists all ethnic minorities in developing their political cooperation, economic, cultural and educational construction works. Since then, all ethnic groups in the country, with the exception of those in the Tibetan and Taiwanese regions, have been granted liberation. Under the unified leadership of the Central People`s Government and the direct leadership of the higher levels of people`s governments, all ethnic minorities fully enjoy the right to national equality and have established or established national regional autonomy.

So that the influences of the aggressive imperialist forces in Tibet can be successfully eliminated, the unification of the territory and sovereignty of the People`s Republic of China can be achieved and national defense can be ensured; in order that the Tibetan ethnic group and people can be liberated and return to the great family of the People`s Republic of China to enjoy the same rights to national equality as all other ethnic groups in the country and to develop their political, economic, cultural and educational work, the Central People`s Government has ordered Tibet to invade, notified the local government of Tibet, Send delegates to the central authorities to hold talks on the conclusion of an agreement on the peaceful liberation measures of Tibet. .

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